A working hypothesis by Cesare Berrini relating to the ideographic representation in bas-relief of the Annual Solar Cycle carved on the
Gateway of the Sun of Tiwanaku.
The Akapana pyramid and the geometric system of time measurement in the pre-Inca civilisation of Tiwanaku.

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The Gateway of the Sun 37KB

The monolith of the Gateway of the Sun
and the figured Annual Solar Cycle
One of thirty Day-carriers
(top row, right-hand side)

The colours of the Day-carriers are coherent with the description of the ideographic structure.
Are elaborated by the author of this study. All right reserved.

PROPORTIONAL CLOCK (photograph at the bottom of the page)


he archaeologic site is situated to the south of lake Titicaca, in Bolivian territory belonging to  Aymara-speaking ethnic groups. For this reason the  term "Tiwanaku" is used in preference to "Tiahuanaco", the latter coming from the Quechua language.

Map 100KB
The Inca empire
An iconographic study of the pre-Inca civilisation of Tiwanaku IV, reveals in the figurative complex carved in bas-relief on the frontal of the Gateway of the Sun, an ideographic system that describes with astronomical precision the course of the Annual Solar Cycle. The interpretative hypothesis for the ideograms in bas-relief identifies a geometric system of time measurement in the figurative representation of the Annual Solar Cycle.


he ideographic images, relating to the astronomical  periods of the Solar Cycle, represent not only the Calendar but also the structure of the hierarchical organization of the State.
We may well be concerned have with the same social order of the Inca civilisation, theorized by the ethnologist R. T. Zuidema, in his studies on the Cheque system of Cuzco (Qosqo) and on the Collana, Payan and Cayao groups.
Falcon-Man. Chavin de Huantar
The research involves the following fields of study: Archaeology, Cultural Ethnology and Anthropology, Linguistic and Archaeoastronomy. It is also within the bounds of these disciplines that the verification of the interpretative hypothesis must proceed.The study reconstructs the original description of fundamental elements of the pre-Inca culture of Tiwanaku IV, only slight traces of which subsisted in the 16th and 17th century Spanish chronicle on the Inca civilisation. Taking into account the results of this research, in the context of the historical reconstructions of the pre-Inca and Inca  Andean civilisation, may clarify the probable  causes of the absence of system of writing or the failure of these to develop.


he concept derived from this study, that of "geometrizing" of the Solar Cycle, may be  a particularly useful line of enquiry into many other ancient prehistoric cultures.

Mochica jewel
Mochica jewel. (gold and turquoise)
It may explain how informations on celestial calculations was recorded and complex astronomical knowledge was transmitted, by being inserted in the  enormous architectonics and planimetric Structures, still to be seen today in various parts of the world.




he scientific reliability of this research finds indirect confirmation on the clock dial, since all system of time measurement in fact refers to the solar cycle, that is to say to mathematical and geometrical parameters that describe the terrestrial orbit.
Proportional Clock
The Proportional Clock
© All rights reserved.
Thus, by applying Kepler's second kinematic law to the hours circle, we arrive at a geometric system for the figurative representation of time known as the "Proportional Dial".
The "Proportional Clock" derives in turn from this dial and incorporates a new figurative dimension of time in Architecture and Urban planning.
The picture on the right shows an example of Urban   furnishing with a  Proportional  Clock, sculpted in porphyry, white river stone and water, by Cesare Berrini for a cooperative wine-growers association in the  Trentino.


he research on the ideographic system of the Gateway of the Sun of Tiwanaku and the Proportional Clock was presented, in winter of 1995 - 1996, at the Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali (Tridentino Museum of Natural Sciences) in an exibition entitled " Geometrie del Tempo " (Geometries of Time); sponsored by FeCCriT and PROMART of Trento.
The   results of this study have also been cited by the peruvian sociologist Victor Campero in his essay: Tawantinsuyo: Gli Incas. Civiltą scomparsa o etnia sottomessa? (Tawantinsuyo: The Incas.  Lost civilisation or subject people?)

About the ideographic system: University and Researchers
About the Proportional Clock: Architects and City-planners

Publication by A.A.T. courtesy. (Associazione Astrofili Trentini)

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